1. Acupuncture: Exclusive therapeutic method for two millennia
Acupuncture treats diseases by inserting fine needles into the body. In July 1971, Dr. Henry A. Kissinger made a secret trip to China to prepare for the historic visit of President Nixon. Among his entourage was James Reston, a New York Times journalist. While in China, Reston underwent a severe appendicitis attack and underwent appendectomy at the Beijing Medical College, created by the Rockefeller Foundation in New York City in 1916. The second night after the surgery, Regent began experiencing significant discomfort in the abdomen
. an acupuncturist approval at the hospital inserted and manipulated three long thin needles, one on the outside of his right elbow and one under each knee. There was a noticeable relaxation of the abdominal pressure and swelling within one hour without a recurrence of the problem thereafter. James Reston includes a detailed account of his acupuncture experiences in his Beijing dispatches. This is the first such report that reaches English-speaking United States citizens, at least the majority of them who did not have day-to-day contact with Asians.
In contrast, acupuncture is known and practiced in China for over 2300 years. Chin Yurren, the earliest registered practitioner of Chinese practitioners, is considered the founder of acupuncture. Qin Yueren's biography is included in the accounts of the great historian (Shi Ji), the masterpiece of the famous Chinese historian Sima Chian (135 BC). It is known that Qin Yurun lived around 407-310 BC. and was a contemporary of Hippocrates (460-377 BC), the father of Western medicine
Qin Yurin traveled extensively in the feudal states for the treatment of men and women, old and young. As a result, he was given the good name "Bian Kay", which means Wayfaring Magpie – a bird flying here and there, who is lucky. Several carved stones revealed by a tomb dating back to the East Hannah dynasty (25-220) depict it with a human head and bird body
. On one occasion, as he passes through Guo Day District of Shan County in Henan Province), Bian Kay learns that the Prince of Guo has died and his subordinates are preparing to intervene. After a careful study, Bian Kuwu believed that the prince had experienced a sort of deep coma, known as death, like a reversal. He successfully resurrected the patient by pressing the acupuncture at the top of his head and became known to return life to the dead. This is the first registered use of acupuncture in China
Acupuncture is exceptional. Historically, the needles were among the most commonly used everyday tools used to make garments around the world. Just as needles are used to sew clothes, they are also used medically to cut seams. While hollow syringes are used to inject or remove fluid in the body, piercing the body with a hard needle for acupuncture to treat a disease seems rather incomprehensible. Most people prefer not to needles and to associate with pain and injuries. No wonder the "needle" means a person does not repeat or annoy in English. With experience and mistakes, doctors around the world have independently discovered such treatments for pain and disease, including herbs, roots, envelopes, pilots, bloodshed, massage, meditation, or surgery. But the invention of acupuncture is unique to China
Why did ancient Chinese begin to cure illness by drilling the body with bare needles? The commonly accepted answer to this question is that acupuncture has evolved as a natural growth of everyday life through the Neolithic (about 8000-3500 BC), through a casual accident process and a recurrent empirical experience. According to this theory, people have noticed cases where physical problems have been relieved after unrelated injuries. This has led to the discovery of the principle that injury to a certain part of the body can alleviate or even cure a pre-existing disease or disorder in a different part of the body
. With this discovery, it is believed that the Neolithic Chinese people eventually began using stones, bones or bamboo pieces to cause intentional injury to ease physical problems. The traumatic nature of acupuncture, which appears to be gross in terms of modern standards, as well as its long history in China, seems to give faith to the theory of its prehistoric origin. However, if acupuncture actually arose from a recurrent empirical attempt at accidental injury, it had to develop around the world, not just in China
2. Meridian of the Body: The Earth's Rivers in the Microcosm
According to traditional Chinese medicine, the network known as "meridians" spreads in the human body, carrying Qi (vital energy) and blood to nourish the organs and tissues. The meridians of the human body are very similar to the rivers of the Earth, both in structure and function. The rivers are the meridians of the Earth in the macrocosm. They are the channels that contain the flow of water, the life force of our planet. On the microscopic scale, the meridians of the human body are channels that contain the flow of Qi and the blood, the vital force of living beings.
Ancient Chinese find that there are twelve ordinary meridians in the human body. Neiching or Huangji Nojin (the inner class of medicine of the Yellow Emperor) (composed between 104 and 32 BC) is the main work of traditional Chinese medicine and the earliest medical exposure of acupuncture. The head titled "Regular Water Currents (Jingshui)" deals specifically with the correspondence between the twelve ordinary meridians and the twelve great rivers in China. The mentioned rivers are located in the Changjiang River basins and the Yellow River
The techniques and terminology of flood control offer a brilliant analogy to the therapeutic mechanisms of acupuncture. Clogs in these "energy rivers" act as dams to impede the flow of Qi and blood and cause it to be recorded in the connecting channels. Required acupunks remove obstacles, heal the disease by restoring the regular flow of Qi and blood. Similarly, dredging the river by clearing the sediment prevents flooding, allowing the water to flow freely. Similar descriptions of flood control and acupuncture have been used since acupuncture first appeared to be a comprehensive treatment system in the early Han Dynasty (206 BC – 24 BC). Such hydraulic terminology has been used not only for its pictorial image. Rather, it shows the understanding that the Chinese ancestors have at that time achieved correspondence between nature and man, the river and the meridian, floods and diseases
3. Diking instead of Diking: The incredible skill of flood control achieved by Chinese ancestors
China is located on a huge and steep continental slope, unlike others in the world. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, located in the western part of China, is the highest and geologically the youngest plateau on earth. It is known as the roof of the world, with an average altitude of 4000-4500 meters. A Chinese proverb reads: "The higher the towers, the higher the water." The vast and purposeful Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the largest and highest natural water tower on Earth, storing snow that is precipitated by water vapor emanating from the world's oceans and seas. As the compressed snow melts under the sun, drop by drop, the released water flows naturally down in the east and accumulates in small streams that then collect in powerful streams that are emptied back into the ocean
The two longest rivers in China, the Yangtze River and the Yellow River, originate from the Qinghai-Tibet plateau heights. They are essential for the development of agriculture and population growth in China's history. But due to the huge drop of height from the Qinghai-Tibet plateau to the sea level, the water in these rivers runs extremely fast and can easily cause a flood. The Yellow River, the largest river in the world, is particularly disgraceful for its destructive floods.
The name of the Yellow River refers to the vast quantities of yellow clay or loess soil it carries. Loess's functions are extremely vulnerable to water erosion. As the yellow river flows through the Loes Plateau in Northwest China, the raging stream takes a yellow mist in unusually large quantities and wipes it down the stream. As the river reaches flatter areas, the current slows down, accumulating huge amounts of yellow fever and raising the riverbed.
Attracted by the fertile lands of the middle and lower limits of the Yellow River, the prehistoric ancestors of the Chinese people have settled on their shores to create a culture based on planting, fishing and hunting. However, these experiments were soon threatened by the heavy and long floods of the river. During the early stages, they may have resided on natural or artificial mountains, or have led nomadic lives to avoid flooding, and also to call for supernatural forces for help. But as their population has increased, they have no choice but to aspire to conquer the great power of the river.
This defining aspect of Chinese culture is reflected in one of the oldest and most popular legends in China, the story of how the Great Yu controlled the floods. It is claimed that during the Voodi Period or the Five Emperors (around 2700 to 2000 BC), severe floods spread throughout the country and led to a major disaster for the people. Emperor Yao has appointed his Minister Gun to conquer the river and control the waters. However, Gunn's attempts to prevent the flood by lifting dikes and dams have failed. The son of the pistol Yu was appointed by the next Emperor Shun (around 2100 BC) to continue his father's work. Studying the lessons learned from his father's failure, Yu noticed and took advantage of the descending flowing nature of the water. He dredges channels according to the physical peculiarities of the terrain to keep the water at last to the sea. After thirteen years of hard work, the floods were weakened.
It may be difficult to separate the fact of the legend in the case of Great Yu, but China's long history of flood control is undeniable. The most valuable principle the ancient Chinese learned from its work on flood control is that dredging or diverting water, naturally moving downwards, is superior to dinging or other attempts to hinder the passage of water.
Dujiang Channel (Dujiang Yan), a well-known project to protect the waters of ancient China and the entire ancient world, is an excellent example of the use of dredging and diversion of water for flood control. Completed in 256 BC, approximately contemporary with the emergence of acupuncture, Dujiang Channel represents the pinnacle of ancient Chinese hydraulic equipment. It continues to play an important role in flood control, irrigation and transportation to date. The world's oldest water conservation project, Dujiang Canal, was added to UNESCO's World Heritage Sites List in 2000.
Long-standing history and unique mastery of flood control achieved by Chinese ancestors illustrated by the Dujiang Canal, the direct growth of the geographic conditions they face. Destructive floods are depicted in the myths and legends of many ancient peoples, such as the story of Noah and the Flood in the Bible. But there are no legends about flood control. This is a direct result of the physical environment of these ancient peoples.
Egypt is dependent on the Nile River both in ancient times and in modern times. Like a silver strip, the Nile passes through the Sahara desert, creating a corridor of life. Water is priceless in the wilderness, creating oases wherever it may be. For Egyptians, the annual flood of the Nile is a blessing rather than a catastrophe, irrigation, and fertilization of arable land in the Nile Valley. This annual flood is so vital to survival that the ancient Egyptians see it as an annual renewal of the first act of creation. If the waters did not rise enough to wipe out the surrounding areas with water and fertile alluvial soil, it would lead to drought and famine
Therefore, ancient Egyptians never developed flood control methods and actually prayed for the flood if they do not happen on time. Believing that the Nile God controlled the floods, they celebrated the annual "Baptist Arrival" and worshiped him with gifts, hoping that the Nile would rise enough to provide water and sand to the farmland
The Two Rivers, The Yellow the river and the Nile, bring different gifts to their inhabitants. While flooding the Nile River fertilizes agricultural land directly into Egypt, "Chinese Tribulation" inspires ancient people to create a unique method of healing.
4. Purge Meridians with Needles: Use the Laws of Nature to Heal the Evil of the Human Body
A basic concept of Chinese philosophy is "The Unity of Humanity and Heaven." This means that humanity, society and nature form an integrated system and that each part is similar and governed by the same laws. Lazio (the founder of Taoism) says: "Humankind is modeled on Earth, Earth is modeled on Heaven, Heaven is modeled on Dao, and Dao is nature itself."
This holistic model of thinking is widely applied in the field of medicine. The early Chinese doctors were also philosophers. They believed that the processes of the human body can be understood by observing and analyzing the phenomena of the universe, and that humanity's disorders can be managed using the principles of nature. Therefore, they believe that practitioners need not only to study the human body but also to "know heaven above the earth." Ancient Chinese philosopher-doctors realize that, as rivers and meridians are structurally similar, river water and the flow of Qi and blood in the meridians adhere to the same rules, and that their disorders can therefore be managed in a similar way way. If the river runs out, water in the river, which naturally flows down, will hold and will lead to flooding. If a meridian is prevented, Qi and the blood it carries, which are naturally circulating, will become stagnant and various disorders may arise. In this way, human body therapists cleared the meridians by piercing needles to stimulate the flow of the Qi and blood and cure diseases just as Earth healers dug the course of the rivers with the help of shovels and shovels to guide the waters and control floods.
The twelve ordinary meridians are distributed throughout the body, forming a net that connects the top and bottom, as well as the inner and outer, in an organic whole. Chi and blood flow through the meridians to nourish the whole body. In addition, specific places called Qi Caves (qixue) or acupoints are found on the skin along the meridian paths. These places are often found in small depressions, usually between muscles, tendons, bones or in space holes. When a person is ill, the flow of Qi and the blood slows down, striving to stand in the incisions, causing the meridians to clog. The insertion of fine needles at these points can effectively stimulate the flow of Qi and blood and remove the obstacles by encouraging recovery.
Clearing the meridians of the human body with the needle to allow the free movement of body energy is a direct application of a central principle of effective flood control – promoting the desired flow by clearing channels rather than raising barriers .
Naying's authors express the correspondence between flood control and acupuncture in this way: "Those, the lake at its lowest point, so that water in the lake can be exhausted and avoid labor load. According to the same logic they throw away the meridians of the sharks, the cave depressions where Qi are present and the blood deposits, the meridians can be freed easily. "
5. Acupuncture: A Real Symbol of Traditional Chinese Culture
Rivers come from the mountains and are empty in the seas. Soil erosion in the upper currents is the main cause of flooding, so the most effective means of flood control is to protect water and soil at the top of the stream. Meridians come to the extremities of the limbs and end up in the abdomen, chest and head. Ето защо, когато се използва акупунктура за лечение на заболявания, главоболието не се лекува чрез назъбване на главата, а по-скоро чрез назъбване на краката. Акупунктурата, използвайки законите на природата, за да излекува злините на човешкото тяло, предлага видим израз на понятията за китайска холистична философия. Практиката да се наложи долната част на тялото да излекува горната част и да лекува външния, за да излекува вътрешната, не е нищо друго, освен олицетворение на холизма.
Акупунктурата се разви в пълната си форма не по-късно от 2 век пр. Хр. същото време, когато китайските прадеди усъвършенстваха принципите си за контрол на наводненията в големия проект за опазване на водите на Дуджианския канал. Точно както водата винаги тече надолу, теорията и практиката на акупунтурата никога не са претърпявали фундаментални промени. От самото начало са постигнати задоволителни резултати чрез пробиване на едни и същи места с едни и същи инструменти
Акупунктурната игла може да изглежда неромантична, но представлява същността на традиционната китайска култура. Акупунктурата не е просто лечебно изкуство, а ярък символ на хилядолетна китайска култура.
Акупунктурата е уникална, оригинална и представителна. Акупунктурата не само илюстрира височината на традиционната китайска култура, но нейното продължително използване в продължение на хиляди години потвърждава стойността на китайските холистични принципи, които тя олицетворява. Стабилността и жизнеността на акупунктурата демонстрират защо китайската цивилизация издържи повече от пет хиляди години
6. Акупунктура: над 1500 години глобализация
Разпространението на акупунктурата по света може да бъде разделено на четири етапа. Акупунктурата се е разпространила до най-малко 140 страни и области до този момент.
Първи етап: До около 6-ти век, акупунктурата започна да се разпространява в съседните страни на Корея, Виетнам и Япония. Особено в Япония основните текстове на акупунктурата се внасят, абсорбират и изучават с голямо внимание.
541 г .: китайските практикуващи се изпращат в Корея от китайското правителство.
552 г. сл .: Императорът на Китай представя Япония копие на Класическия акупунктура (част от Класическия вътрешен медицински клас на Жълтия Император (Huangdi Neijing).
754 г. АД: Джиан Джен, високопоставен представител на династията Танг (618-907 г.), пресича морето до Япония (Англойо) за да обнародва будизма и китайската медицина
Втори етап: до около 12 век след Христа, акупунктурата започна да достига Близкия изток по пътя на коприната
Трети етап: До края на 1500 – началото на 1600 г. (19659002) 1671 г .: Харвиу, монах на йезуит, произвежда първия фре ски превод на произведение по акупунктура, когато се връща във Франция от Макао и Пекин
1683 г. сл .: Уилем Т. en Rhyne, холандски лекар, който посещава Нагасаки в Япония в началото на 17-ти век, публикува в Лондон Dissertatio de Arthride: Mantissa Schematica de Acupunctura, латинска дисертация по акупунктура и изобразява европейския термин "акупунктура"
1810 г.: Първата регистрирана употреба на акупунктура в Европа се случва в Парижката гимназия по медицина, когато д-р Берлио я използва за лечение на млада жена, страдаща от коремна болка. Медицинско общество в Париж описва това като донякъде безразсъдна форма на лечение
1823 г .: Акупунктура се споменава в първото издание на Лансет
Четвърти етап: От началото на 70-те години акупунктурата се е разпространила драматично в целия свят, катализирана от историческото посещение на Никсън в Китай и популяризирано от Световната здравна организация (СЗО).
1971: Джеймс Рестън съобщава за своя опит с акупунктура в Пекин в "Ню Йорк Таймс". Тази статия представлява първата новина за акупунктура за достигане до англоезичните граждани на Съединените щати или поне по-голямата част от мнозинството, които нямат ежедневен контакт с азиатците.
1973: Американския вестник на акупунктурата започва да се публикува, роля в клиничната практика и изследване на акупунктурата на Запад
1976: Д-р Брус Померац, професор в катедрата по зоология в университета в Торонто, издава оригинална статия, в която се казва, че аналгезията в акупунктурата се медиира от ендорфини. Неговите изследвания са първите, които използват западната научна парадигма, за да обяснят защо акупунктурата работи.
1979: Международна конференция по акупунктура, моксибузия и акустична анестезия, спонсорирана от СЗО, се провежда в Пекин и се посещава от участници от дванадесет страни. Целта му е да се обсъдят начините, по които приоритетите и стандартите за акупунктура могат да бъдат определени в областта на клиничната практика, научните изследвания, обучението и трансфера на технологии. Конференцията съставя прогнозен списък на болестите, които се поддават на лечение с акупунктура.
1987: Световната федерация на акупунктурните общества (WFAS) е основана в Пекин. Днес WFAS има 76 клона, представляващи повече от 70 000 членове от 43 страни и региони.
1997: Националният институт по здравеопазване (NIH) признава ефективността на акупунктурата при лечението на редица заболявания
] 1998: Вестникът на Американската медицинска асоциация (JAMA) стартира колона, посветена на алтернативни и допълващи терапии.
2000: Британската медицинска асоциация (BMA) предоставя доклад за акупунктура и заключава, че акупунктурата е безопасна и ефективна за лечение редица заболявания и разстройства.